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CFTC Pressure Mounts for DeFi Protocols to Register and Comply

Decentralized finance (DeFi) has exploded in popularity as an alternative venue for cryptocurrency trading, lending and other financial activities. However, recent enforcement actions by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) serve as a stern warning that DeFi protocols cannot ignore regulatory compliance obligations. DeFi operators must register appropriately and meet requirements under the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) or risk penalties.

Backdrop: CFTC Charges DeFi Firms for Illegal Derivatives Trading

In September 2022, the CFTC simultaneously issued settlement orders against three DeFi protocol developers - Opyn, dYdX, and ZeroEx - for illegally offering leverage and margin digital asset derivative trades to US retail customers.

None of the three platforms had registered with the CFTC as required to lawfully provide these derivative services. Specifically, they failed to register as a Designated Contract Market (DCM) or Swap Execution Facility (SEF) under CFTC regulations. The orders require Opyn, dYdX, and ZeroEx to pay fines of $250,000, $100,000, and $200,000 respectively. The firms cooperated with the investigation and did not admit or deny the CFTC’s findings.

Emphasizing DeFi is Not Above the Law

In announcing the charges, the CFTC reiterated that decentralized and automated smart contract processes did not absolve DeFi protocols from complying with applicable laws on commodity derivatives. Ian McGinley, the CFTC’s Director of Enforcement, noted that at some point DeFi operators erroneously assumed that integrating unlawful activities into smart contracts magically made them lawful. The recent actions dispel that myth.

Likewise, Acting Director Vincent McGonagle emphasized that regardless of the technology, DeFi protocols offer leveraged, margined, or financed digital asset transactions, so they must register and comply with the CEA just like any other derivatives platform. The CFTC maintains that decentralization does not affect determining control or assigning liability for violations. Developers who create and profit from DeFi protocols with illegal activity remain accountable.

Call for DeFi to Register and Follow CEA Rules

The CFTC orders serve as a clear warning to the DeFi sector that excuses will no longer fly for unregistered derivatives trading.DeFi protocols enabling margin trading, options, futures, swaps and other CFTC-regulated activity in cryptocurrencies must register as a DCM or SEF and implement all required compliance measures for futures commission merchants (FCMs) and introducing brokers (IBs).

However, the CFTC has yet to provide guidance on exactly how smart contract DeFi protocols can functionally comply and be eligible for registration. DeFi platforms do not operate like centralized exchanges with existing registration models. Nonetheless, the CFTC expects DeFi operators to make good faith efforts towards compliance based on the CEA’s principles and purposes. Failing to do so risks aggressive enforcement actions.

Evolving Regulatory Views on DeFi Oversight

The CFTC first signaled tightening oversight of DeFi derivatives trading in March 2022, when it charged the DeFi Money Market (DMM) with illegally offering leveraged retail commodity transactions. DMM paid $250,000 to settle the charges. Observers note the CFTC’s stance has rapidly shifted as DeFi adoption accelerates, from initial enthusiasm about potential “freedoms” enabled by DeFi to recent skepticism of unchecked risks in these novel markets.

Yet some CFTC officials like Commissioner Christy Goldsmith Romero have warned against aggressive enforcement before providing regulatory clarity to enable compliance. In a September 2022 speech, Commissioner Goldsmith Romero acknowledged that the Commission must still articulate how protocols can comply with existing frameworks not designed with DeFi in mind.

A Balanced Approach to DeFi Governance

The growth of decentralized financial services clearly warrants regulation to protect consumers and ensure market integrity. But DeFi’s unique structural characteristics challenge traditional regulatory models. Rather than immediately wielding the hammer of enforcement, regulators should pursue industry collaboration to develop balanced DeFi oversight that accommodates the nuances of these revolutionary technologies.

Simultaneously, DeFi architects should proactively consider governance mechanisms to comply with applicable laws and mitigate inherent risks in their designs. Users also need to exercise extreme caution and conduct proper due diligence before engaging DeFi platforms. With a thoughtful approach from all stakeholders, it is possible to nurture responsible DeFi innovation that promotes financial inclusion and efficiency without compromising key regulatory objectives. But the CFTC’s recent actions underscore the urgent need for pragmatic solutions before unchecked risks trigger an enforcement avalanche.


The CFTC has clearly signaled through its enforcement orders against Opyn, dYdX and ZeroEx that DeFi protocols must register and comply with the Commodity Exchange Act. DeFi operators can no longer ignore derivative trading regulations claiming decentralization as an excuse. However, the CFTC itself acknowledges challenges applying existing regulatory frameworks to DeFi’s structural novelty. Balanced governance that protects consumers while enabling ethical crypto innovation remains a complex work in progress. Yet the DeFi community can no longer delay credible self-governance efforts before regulators intervene more forcefully. With collaboration and prudence on all sides, DeFi technologies can fulfill their vast potential to expand financial access and efficiency.

As regulatory expectations rise, blockchain analytics becomes integral for bringing transparency and accountability to decentralized finance. Globally, regulators are demanding stricter oversight of crypto markets. To gain a competitive edge, DeFi firms should proactively implement robust governance frameworks tailored to their jurisdiction’s requirements.

At Merkle Science, our specialized investigation software delivers actionable intelligence to uncover risks across DeFi protocols, supporting registration and compliance. We enable platforms to monitor transactions, trace fund flows, perform customer due diligence and identify potential threats. Merkle Science provides 360-degree compliance support to mitigate risks. Our customizable Behavioral Rule Engine allows aligning controls with specific regulatory expectations.

If your DeFi business needs to strengthen governance to register successfully, schedule a demo today. Our experts are ready to discuss implementing effective analytics and risk mitigation strategies.